Growing Shatavari, and Cultivation Practices, Economics
Introduction to Growing Shatavari
Today, let us get into details of Growing Shatavari herb.
The Shatavari is one of the popular herbs which are used in Ayurvedic medicines. It is also known as a medicinal plant. It is one of the species of Asparagus. But these are Wild Asparagus. The Shatavari is originated from Asparagus genus. Shatavari belongs to Asparagaceae family. The Shatavari is scientifically named as Asparagus Racemosus. These Shatavari is commonly found in the Himalayas, India, Nepal, Africa, China and Sri Lanka.
The Shatavari is popularly grown in Indian states like Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kerala, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Jharkhand. In India, more than 500 tonnes are used and also are needed for the preparation of Ayurvedic medicines. Not only in Ayurvedic medicines also used in homeopathy and also in Siddha medicines. This Shatavari is also named as shatmuli, satavari, satawar, satavari, shatavali, satavari, satamuli, satavari, satawarmul, kilwari, and pilligadalu.
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Characteristics of Shatavari:
Plant: It is one of the plant woody plants, the plant reaches, which up to a height of 1 – 2 m.
Leaves: The leaf of the plant is small in size; they are like a pine – needle leaf and shiny green.
Flowers: In the month of July, the plant produces white flower which is short and as spiky stems.
Fruits: The fruits are produced in the month of September. The fruits are blackish – purple in colour.
Properties of Shatavari:
The nutrients that are enclosed in Shatavari are:
- Moisture: 9.5 %
- Ash: 3.55 g
- Protein: 2.47 g
- Carbohydrates: 49.9 g
- Energy: 245 kcal
- Fat: 0.3 g
- The vitamin C is present in Shatavari.
- The minerals that are present in Shatavari are Iron, zinc, Calcium
Medicinal Properties of Shatavari:
- The Shatavari roots help the mother to stimulate the milk as this Shatavari root is mainly used as a galactagogue
- To the weak body system, it is a very good energy provider to the human body.
- It improves the lost body weight and it is also known as an aphrodisiac.
- These roots are useful for treating the diseases or ailments like diabetes, dysentery and tuberculosis.
- It can be consumed normally as it supports the body by sharing immunity the body as this immunity will fight against the diseases that attack the human body.
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Varieties of Shatavari:
Satavari: (Asparagus Racemosus)
- These are found in China, Africa, India, Sri Lanka and the Himalayas.
- The height of the plant will be 1 – 3 m.
- The flowers of this plant will be 3 cm long
- The perianth will be 3 mm long.
Satavari: (Asparagus sarmentosa linn)
- These are popularly found in South Africa, Burchell and Sutherland.
- The plant will be 2 – 4 cm in height.
- And the perianth will be 1 inch long.
Soil and Climate requirements for Growing Shatavari:
For Growing Shatavari we need to use the medium black soils which contain electric conductivity of 0.15, organic carbon 0.79%, and also the Phosphorus 7.3 kg per acre of land. The pH level of the soil should range from 6 – 8 for best growth of plants. These plants can also grow under a shallow soil and rocky soils which are not deeper than the 20 – 30 cm.
The crop thrives well in agro – climatic conditions that range from temperature to tropical hilly climatic regions. These can also grow in moderate hilly regions like Kolli, Kalrayan, and Shevroys. And also in medium elevation of Western Ghats hills, the elevation should range in between 800 – 1550 m above MSL. It is also capable of tolerating low climatic conditions or temperature.
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Land preparation and Planting for Growing Shatavari:
Before planting the grafted plants or planting the seedling we need to prepare the land, the weeds, unwanted material of the previous crop should be removed, stones, pebbles etc, should also be removed the land should be neat and clean. Then we need to plough the land as the soil attains fine tilth and smooth texture. After the ploughing process gets completed the tillering and levelling should be done. After all this the land should be applied with farmyard manure.
Then for planting the plant 40 – 45 cms broad ridges should be prepared. And the levelling of 15 – 20 cm furrow spaces should be left for the channels of irrigation. Each of the seeds should be 5 cms away from each other.
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Propagation method for Growing Shatavari:
For Growing Shatavari, the propagation of Shatavari is done by using the seeds or by using the vegetative propagation.
Seed Propagation: The beds of 5 cm are raised in April then the seeds should be sown in the beds which are raised and they should be facilitated with the decay of its hard coat by the time of monsoon. After the first irrigation, given to the plant the germination starts and it takes 8 – 10 days for the germination of seeds. This process should be done in the month of June. On the ridges the seedling should be transplanted at a distance of 60 cm * 60 cm and for the support of the plants we need to provide the plants with bamboo stakes at a height of 45 cm.
- Seed Rate: For an acre of land we need 400 – 600 g.
- Seed Treatment: Before planting them, we need to treat them by sowing them in cow urine for 24 hours.
Vegetative Propagation: The propagation of the plants can be done by taking the base and also the upper part of the tree of the mature plant. After some days the grafted plant root produces 2 – 3 tuberous roots. For the grafted plants we need to give 1 cm of irrigation. After transplanting, the sprouting commences in 8 – 10 days of planting.
Manure and Fertilization method in Growing Shatavari:
- At the time of plant we need to use the farmyard manure. For an acre of land we need 80 quintals of Farmyard manure, which is well decomposed.
- For an acre of land we need 52 kg of Urea and 200 kg of Super Sulphur Phosphate and also 66 kg of Muriate of Potash.
- The nutrient requirement for an acre of land is Nitrogen @ 24 kg, Phosphorus @ 32 kg and Potash @ 40 kg.
- We can also use Bio pesticides to prevent the soil from borne diseases like Dhatura, Cow’s urine and Chitrakmool.
Irrigation methods in Growing Shatavari:
The requirement of the irrigation for this plant is very low, as it can also survive without irrigation. Annual rainfall, which is required for the Shatavari plant is 800 – 1200 mm of well distributed rainfall. The first irrigation is given at the time of plantation. The second irrigation is given at the time of seedling establishment. During winter, the irrigation can be given for every 30 days interval.
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Intercultural methods in Growing Shatavari:
Weeding: The weeding should be done regularly or else these weeds will cause pests or diseases to the plant. The weeding can be done manually or by using the chemicals like weedicides or herbicides.
Pruning: The unwanted materials like stems, leaves and dead twigs can be removed. This will help the plat for getting the air inside the plant.
Intercropping: In General the Shatavari is grown as a monocrop, but we can inter space the orchards that have light interception can be grown along with the Shatavari. Stalking material is needed for the plants, as these shrubs serve for with the help of support.
Pest and Diseases control measures in Growing Shatavari:
There are no particular pests and diseases that affect the Shatavari herb.
Harvesting techniques in Growing Shatavari:
After transplanting them from the nursery to the main field, it takes 20 – 30 months for the roots to get mature. And it also depends on the soil and climatic conditions as they will be matured within 12 -14 months. The harvesting is done in the month of March – May. The harvesting can be done by using the Kudali. For the preparation of medicines we need to take the fully ripen seeds.
Post harvesting techniques in Growing Shatavari:
- Peeling: After harvesting the Shatavari, they should be peeled in boiling conditions. Once, after they are peeled they should be left in the air as they will dry.
- Drying: These should be dried in a temperature at 40˚C.
- Sorting: The herbs should sort as per the grades.
- Grading: The grading is done as per the colour and quantity.
- Packing: Then they should be packed in airtight bags for storage and also for the transportation purposes.
- Further Processing: Then the roots which are ripen are further processed in like powder, gulam and ghritam
Yield of Shatavari:
The yield, which is obtained from a single plant is 500 – 600 g of fresh root. But on the average yield that is obtained from one hectare of land is 12,000 – 14,000 kg of fresh roots. If they are dried, then they reduce to 1000 – 1200 kg of dried root.
Economics of Growing Shatavari:
- Expenditure for Growing Shatavari in one hectare of land is Rs.12, 000/-
- Return from the Shatavari crop per hectare is Rs. 35,000/-
- The Net income from a hectare of land is Rs.24, 600/-
Note: These are approximate estimations for the Shatavari crop.
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