Social, Religious and Political Life of Rig (Early) Vedic Aryans

Social Life: During the Rig Vedic period, both men and women were devoted to recreations of various kinds. Dancing and singing were enjoyed by both the sexes while horse races and gambling were the pastimes of the males only.

This proves that there was ample time left to them for enjoying the life through recreation and, of course, devotional prayers to different gods and goddesses.

The Aryan wore simple clothes. The males put on a turban and three more pieces of cloth round their body. The ladies, however, used a sari, an upper garment and a chaddar for their daily use. The rich had colored and embroidered clothes. Gold ornaments added to the beauty and dignity of the people.

The main food of the Aryans was milk, curd, butter and ghee but they would use fruits, vegetables and the cereals that they would produce. They, however, took meat and drank liquor, though it was not very common.

Special sacrifice needed the expert supervision of the Brahmin but on major occasions alone his services were utilized. Otherwise, the head of the family would perform all rituals and ceremonies.

Caste-system was not organized during the Rig Vedic Period. There were no Brahmins, Kashtriyas, Vaishyas or the Sudras.

The Rishis were men of the world leading domestic life, owning herds of cattle and taking active part in the village life.

During the Rig Vedic period, there was no or very few superstitions. People became more superstitious during the later Vedic period.

Anybody could adopt any profession without any association with any well-formed caste.

Religious Life: Rig Veda being predominantly a religious scripture, throws ample light on the religious beliefs, the ways of worship and devotion to different deities and especially the first and the seventh Mandals (Chapters) of this Veda are full of religious information.

The religion of the time was simple and free of all formalities. The only congregational prayer was Yagya. People used to go either to open fields or to jungles to entreat various gods and goddesses for their well-being. They would recite mantras to please the gods.

The Aryans had a great respect for nature and wherever they would find any beauty or power in the natural manifestation, they would just bow their heads and entreat mercy from that object.

Political Life: Rig Veda polity revolved round the pivot of the joint family system based on the patriarchal form where the head of the family would wield all power and all the other members of the family would surrender to him all their Rights.

This system worked not only in the family but it extended to the village life, to the tribe, and the people as well and, of course, ultimately to the country in the form of the Raja or King.

The main organizations under the political administration of those days were well defined and well-knit together to strengthen them.

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