Between the late 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, there were three Anglo-Maratha wars (or Maratha Wars). Anglo-Maratha War will be discussed in this article. Candidates can also download First Anglo-Maratha War notes PDF from the link provided below.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775 – 1782)
- The third Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao died in 1761 due to shock after his defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat.
- The succession was taken over by Madhavrao I, his son. Madhavrao I was able to recover some of the Maratha power and territories which they had lost in the Battle of Panipat.
- The English were aware of the growing Maratha power.
- When Madhavrao I died, there was a tussle for power in the Maratha camp.
- His brother Narayanrao became the Peshwa but his uncle Raghunathrao wanted to become the Peshwa. For this, he sought the help of the English
- In 1775, Raghunathrao signed the Treaty of Surat, under which he ceded Salsette and Bassein to the English in exchange for 2500 soldiers.
- The British and army of Raghunathrao attacked the Peshwa and won.
- A new treaty, the Treaty of Purandhar, was signed between the British Calcutta Council and Nana Phadnavis, a Maratha minister, in 1776 after Warren Hastings annulled this treaty.
- Accordingly, Raghunathrao was given a pension only and Salsette was retained by the British.
- But the British establishment at Bombay violated this treaty and sheltered Raghunathrao.
- In 1777, Nana Phadnavis went against his treaty with the Calcutta Council and granted a port on the west coast to the French.
- This led the British to advance a force towards Pune. There was a battle at Wadgaon near Pune in which the Marathas under Mahadji Shinde secured a decisive victory over the English.
- In 1779, the English were forced to sign the Treaty of Wadgaon.
- 1782 was the year when the Treaty of Salbai was signed after a series of battles. First Anglo-Maratha war ended with this victory.
Results of the First Anglo-Maratha War:
- The East India Company retained Salsette and Broach.
- A guarantee was also obtained from the Marathas that they would retake their possessions in the Deccan from Hyder Ali of Mysore.
- Furthermore, the Marathas promised that the French would not be given any more territories.
- Raghunathrao was to receive a pension of Rs.3 lakh every year.
- Following the Treaty of Purandhar, all territories taken by the British were returned to the Marathas.
- The English accepted Madhavrao II (son of Narayanrao) as the Peshwa.[/su_box]